Reckoning(alternatively titledFile Under Water)is the second studio album by Americanalternative rockbandR.E.M., released on April 9, 1984 byI.R.S. Records. Produced byMitch EasterandDon Dixon, the album was recorded at Reflection Sound Studio inCharlotte, North Carolina, over 16 days in December 1983 and January 1984. Dixon and Easter intended to capture the sound of R.E.M.'s live performances, and usedbinaural recordingon several tracks. Lead singerMichael Stipedealt with darker subject matter in his lyrics, with water-related imagery being a recurring theme on the album.